Part 3 – Outfitting our Land Rover Defender 90

Part 3 – Outfitting our Land Rover Defender 90

Already our Defender 90 had been through a lot. A full service career with the Italian Carabinieri, re-imported to the United Kingdom, exported to British Columba Canada and then a major engine over haul and upgrade. This little Defender had seen it all on both sides of the world so far.

Our intention was always to be respectful to the brand, to the heritage and to the vehicle by not doing too much in the way of cutting, chopping and going over the top.

Part of our self brief was to do work on our vehicle that:

  • Respected the original vehicle.
  • Preserved what we had.
  • Cut & drilled as little as possible.
  • Not created a vehicle that was far from original specifications.
  • Adapted it for our needs.
  • Helped preserve the longevity and retain value.

What we wanted was a vehicle that had the following characteristics:

  • Simple.
  • Reliable.
  • Functional.
  • Has forms of protection.
  • Awesome tires.
  • Good suspension.
  • Good storage.
  • Practical.
  • Capable of long overland journeys.
  • Highly capable off road.
  • Made us smile every time we drive it.

What we have ended up with is a long list of very cool but well thought out additions or upgrades that enhance the vehicle in terms of practicality, form and function but retains it’s original looks.

The very last thing we wanted was a huge lift, massive tires, great strain and stress on an older vehicle.

The true reality is that an old Defender 90 is an exceptionally capable vehicle stock and straight from the factory. There is something about driving a vehicle using pure technique with amazing old mechanical technology and not relying on electronic traction aids (not that there is anything wrong with them..)

A huge thanks must go to friends, colleagues, mentors that helped advise, helped build and give feed back to make it possible. Fred Monsees, Sean Gorman, Tim Scully, David Rees, Jim West, Ray Hyland, Paul Cooper, Matt Kerr & Don Macdonald.

  • WARN Zeon 8S Winch & Fairlead.
  • Terrafirma Pro Taper HD Winch Bumper.
  • Factor 55 Flatlink Expert.
  • ARB Awning.
  • Trasheroo.
  • Flat Dog Ladder.
  • Flat Dog Rear Swing Tire & Hi-Lift Carrier.
  • Hi-Lift Jack.
  • Terrafirma Bumperettes.
  • Transport Canada / ICBC mandated 3rd Break Light.
  • Terrafirma HD Sliders (tree kick outs).
  • Treeline Tamarack Constellation Roof Top Tent.
  • FrontRunner Slimline 2 Roof Rack.
  • Sceptre Fuel & Water Jerry Cans.
  • The Perfect Co-Pilot / Navigator / Moral Builder / Activity Co-ordinator.
  • Devon 4×4 Twin Battery Tray.
  • 2 x PC1500 Odyessy Batteries.
  • Dual Battery Solenoid & Wiring.
  • ARB 24 Spline Banjo Rear Air Locking Differential.
  • 300tdi Pyrometer.
  • Terrafirma 300tdi HD Hoses.
  • VDO Pyrometer Gauge.
  • VDO Water Temperature Gauge.
  • Icom VHF.
  • Series Defender Carling Switch Holder.
  • Carling Wiper Washer & Spotlight Switch.
  • ARB Rear Air Locker & Compressor Switches.
  • Bluesea USB.
  • Land Rover Factory HD Floor Mats.
  • Factory Original Carabinieri Safety Sticker (shame to remove history…).
  • ARB 50 Quart Fridge.
  • ARB Fridge Slide.
  • Custom Made Drawer & Storage.
  • ARB / WARN / Red Winches / Factor 55 Recovery Gear.
  • Custom Amsteel Blue Recovery Gear.
  • On Board Air Outlet.
  • ARB CKMA12 Compressor.
  • ARB Air Tank.
  • ARB Braided Air Hoses.
  • Blue Sea Auxillary Fuse Panel.
  • ARB Safari Snorkel.
  • FrontRunner Snow Cover (on cabin air intake).
  • FrontRunner Aluminium HD Steering Guard.
  • ARB OME Steering Damper.
  • General Tire Grabber X3 33″ Tires.
  • ARB OME 2″ HD Springs & Shocks.
Part 2 – Engine Conversion

Part 2 – Engine Conversion

As many of you have been following the progress of my engine conversion online via social media, it’s about time I follow that up with some more detail.

After importing and driving the new to us Defender 90 we decided that an engine conversion was the right thing to do and the next step in the development of our iconic off road and adventuring vehicle.

Originally this Land Rover Defender 90 came with the rarer 2.0 T16 MPI DOHC gasoline engine. The configuration and history of this vehicle came from Land Rover’s special order military ordeign department. The Italian Carabinieri ordered roughly a thousand of these vehicles with this engine configuration due to Italy’s fuel taxation rates and the scarcity of diesel at the time.

The original engine is a really great little engine that loved to rev and zipped the Defender down the road very happily at over 70mph. The beauty of this engine is that it’s small, light, compact and has a low fuel consumption.

The reason for the conversion was to move the vehicle back to the iconic diesel set up to allow for the required low down tractor like torque. Being a model year 1996 Defender 90, the correct thing to do was to convert it to the classic Land Rover 300tdi diesel.

I was lucky enough to arrange some help through Rovalution Automotive in North Vancouver, an old Land Rover specialist shop. I wanted to do most of the work myself to keep the cost down and to learn how to do such a conversion as I had never done anything like this before. Don and the guys were amazing during the whole process.

Our process was fairly straight forward and took a couple of months as I had to fit in the conversion around work. During the conversion we did as much as we could to complete the conversion using OEM parts and to original manufacturing specifications.

The conversion itself was very straightforward forwards, the old engine came out with gentle care as it will be being re-used by a really great friend. And the installation went fairly smoothly as the correct R380 transmission and LT230 transfer case was the same as the original engine and those were the ones we wanted to use. The only things we had to change really were the fuel pickup, motor mounts, exhaust and literally one wire in the current harness – which was a simple matter of blanking off the old fuel sender wires and switching one wire in the starter rely connecter, literally into a new hole in the same connector – awesome!

We did take the time to install all new hoses, seals, timing belt, clutch etc whilst we had the engine out which would save time in the future.

The final few days of the conversion and the first time we started it up was a fantastic moment that made all the hard work well worth it.

Part 1 – Importing a Land Rover Defender 90

Part 1 – Importing a Land Rover Defender 90

The Background

It’s been about a year since I imported my Land Rover Defender 90 into British Columbia, Canada. I thought I’d write to share the experience: some information and the process I went through.

The time had come for a new off road and overlanding vehicle and the Defender 90 seemed like the perfect vehicle for me for a variety of reasons. As I’m originally from the United Kingdom, almost every farm has one or more, often in blue or green, towing an Ifor Williams trailer or a piece of farm equipment, more often than not with a silver open canopy containing at the very least a couple of sheep dogs. I’d grown up around these vehicles and they are apart of my heritage. I’d also spent lots of time in them through various avenues of work and am hugely passionate about the Land Rover brand. I love the brand’s history and am reasonably versed in their capabilities, quirks and any potential issues that may arise.


Finding a solid and reliable vehicle from overseas is an exceptional challenge. After hours on the phone, the internet, chatting to friends and following leads, I found exactly what I wanted via a lovely couple and their company, Bespoke Off Road, in beautiful Oxfordshire, UK.  They had the perfect vehicle in their shop ready and waiting for me.  After some negotiations we agreed on a price but the toughest thing to swallow was that I was agreeing to something sight unseen.  I needed a way of verifying that it was indeed a legitimate deal and a good buy.

This is where my UK roots came into play once again – my younger brother, David, who lives about 2 hours away from Oxfordshire was an enormous help. With some brotherly bribery, I persuaded him to go and check it out in person.  He got the long list of my questions answered and took many videos and pictures – extremely valuable information and I was super impressed at how great a job he did especially since he isn’t a mechanic by trade.  His efforts helped seal the deal and without his help, this dream of mine probably wouldn’t have become a reality.  Once the deal was done, Anna at Bespoke Off Road arranged to have it delivered to the Port Of Southampton for shipping.


The process wasn’t nearly as complicated as I thought it was going to be.  It was fairly straight forward after some research.  Even smarter on my part, however, was using the advice given by Anna at Bespoke Off Road as they were experts at exporting vehicles from the United Kingdom to the US & Canada.  They suggested using a company called Fast Lane Forwarding.  A few emails later and I was set up with a all the information I required and a booking.

There are a couple of options for shipping a vehicle from overseas, each in increasing price:

  1. Roll on, Roll off vehicle ship.

  2. Shared 40ft sea container.

  3. Dedicated 20ft sea container.

There weren’t any options for sharing a container and I did not want to use a roll on, roll off option due to the risk of vehicle damage etc., which left the dedicated 20ft sea container option.  Fast Lane Forwarding were exceptional and I got a discounted rate as a Bespoke Off Road customer.  This was great news as every penny counts with this costly process.  The shipping logistics was very straightforward, from making the initial booking, to payment, to organizing all the necessary shipping documents.  The most vital of the documents is the Bill Of Landing which is essential to ensure a smooth, drama free transit.  This is prepared by the shipper and is then issued to the receiving agent only once the vessel carrying the vehicle has sailed.  It contains detailed information on the load (license plate number, VIN, make, model etc), origins, destination, shipper, client, vessel, SUDU & SEAL numbers and so on.  All this information is required at the destination for legal entry through Canada Customs. (More on this later…)


Being somewhat of a geek, I downloaded the iOS app Vessel Finder to track the container vessel on its journey across the Atlantic Ocean, through the Panama Canal and up the west coast of the US & Canada on the Pacific Ocean.

The container was loaded in Southampton, UK onto the Hapag Lloyd vessel, the Glasgow Express, for its nearly six week journey to Canada.

It was fun watching it make its progress throughout its travels, watching it stop at a few major ports and even catching it pass through the Gatún Locks in the Panama Canal via webcam.

Canada Customs & Importation

Typically this is where many issues can arise.  The paperwork, logistics and legalities can be hugely complicated.  I had, however, decided to try and mitigate that as much as possible by using a customs and importation handling agent which was money well spent.  Here is an outline of the stages in the process:

  1. Container arrives at destination port.

  2. Container is unloaded. (Applicable fees apply)

  3. Container is taken to a customs clearance zone. (Applicable fees apply)

  4. Container is stored until customs inspection. (Applicable fees apply)

  5. Container is inspected by the CBSA. (Applicable fees apply)

  6. Vehicle can be sent for de-soiling if CBSA requires. (Applicable fees apply)

  7. Container shipped to customs bonded warehouse. (Applicable fees apply)

  8. Storage and de-stuffing of container. (Applicable fees apply)

  9. Release of contents to customer.

Where things can fall apart is if the documentation isn’t arranged properly before and during the transit of the shipment.  Costs can very quickly spiral into hundreds, if not thousands of dollars in storage, extra handling, more in depth container inspections, delay in releasing the shipment and so on.  Using an agent ensured that the process was completed within a couple of days upon arrival into Canada.  This was a huge savings of time and money.  I used an incredibly helpful company called Livingstone International. They guided me through the entire process, made sure I had all the correct paperwork, information and had pre-paid all the fees for customs, GST, shipping & handling.

An amusing yet pain in the butt situation was at the bonded warehouse.  All the paperwork was done, the vehicle was released to me and I had the temporary importation ICBC vehicle insurance – all ready to drive away and start many more adventures to come.  However, the container de-stuffing company decided to use one of their warehouses that had no vehicle ramp, meaning that once it was unloaded into the warehouse from the container, there was no way to drive it away as there was no exit door or ramp – unless I really wanted to test out the suspension with the 5 foot drop.  After a couple of hours waiting for a flat bed recovery truck, we were on our way to the next phase of the importation process.

Inspection, Registration & Insurance

The final process of the importation was registering the vehicle in British Columbia so that it could be insured and legally driven on the road.

This was straight forward, although probably the most expensive part of the process, but I knew in advance that this would probably be the case.

From where I picked it up at the warehouse, I drove it across Vancouver on a temporary ICBC import insurance policy that essentially allows you to drive the vehicle from the customs port of entry, directly to the inspection facility.  I had chosen to use Don and his guys at Rovalution.  Don is an incredibly passionate Land Rover fan and owns the best shop in western Canada which specializes in old Land Rovers, especially Defender’s.  I knew taking it there for its inspection it would get a thorough evaluation that I could trust.  I was a little nervous as it is an older vehicle and I knew Rovalution’s eagle eyes would find things I didn’t really want to hear, but in reality it was a great experience.  At the end of the inspection I knew the exact state of the vehicle and was pleasantly surprised as there wasn’t as much work to be done as I was originally anticipating:

  1. New front break callipers.

  2. DOT rated windscreen.

  3. Third rear break light.

  4. Side reflectors.

  5. Battery hold down bar.

  6. Tie rod ends.

  7. New pedal shoes.

Once the work was done and the inspection was passed, I could then head to ICBC to register, pay the PST on the importation value and then insure it.  Again since I had all the paperwork in order including all the purchase receipts, B3, Form 1 Importation Form, Customs Declaration, Bill Of Lading, CBSA inspection report, mechanical inspection report and so on, it was very straight forward.

It’s Home

As soon as it was insured, it was filled with gas and then driven up the Sea To Sky Highway for the very first time to it’s new home.  Such a fun sunny day on a beautiful highway, cruising along in my new Land Rover.  A pretty exciting day after about four months of hard work and preparation.

The Vehicle

What Bespoke Off Road had found was a 1996 Land Rover Defender 90. However, this is where it gets interesting.  This particular vehicle was never sold to the public as it was made through Land Rover’s special military ordering department after being commissioned by the Italian Carabinieri

This Defender 90 was one of only a few hundred ever built and has a rare 2.0 MPI T16 DOHC 16v engine configuration that was produced only for the Italian Carabinieri.  They needed a small petrol engine to service their force vehicle requirements.  Under Italian laws, these smaller vehicles avoided major taxation that exists on bigger engine sizes in their region.  More importantly, the severe lack of diesel in that region meant that it would have been logistically foolhardy to use diesel engined Land Rover Defenders.  All of their existing fleet vehicles are petrol.

Why did I choose this vehicle? Well, to be honest, finding a good Land Rover Defender 90 that is old enough to bring to Canada (it has to be older than 15 years old to meet import requirements if manufactured outside of North America if it does not meet other criteria).  Almost everything found these days is either exceptionally expensive (usually very inflated, due to the fact that Land Rover has ceased to make the Defender in it’s current & historic configuration), or it has high mileage and is highly corroded.  I knew that this vehicle had come from the dry lands of southern Italy and would be in very good shape.  I would rather a solid vehicle with an odd ball engine than a rusted hulk with a tiredand thrashed diesel engine.

Once it landed in Canada and I saw it, I knew I had made the right choice.  Sure the little 2.0 MPI petrol engine has less torque than the classic diesel 300tdi, but in all honesty, it moved along very nicely on the highway, cruising at 90km/h happily.  It did struggle on the longer steep hills and off road a little bit, but this added character and is where my off road driving skills kicked in and I loved the challenge and the feeling of accomplishment.  It more than easily has coped with trails like Whipsaw with ease – that’s how amazing these stock vehicles are.

Whistler Mountain Mapping Initiative

Whistler Mountain Mapping Initiative

Our Involvement 

As part of our committement to wilderness travel we work closely with a few different organizations. One of which locally, is the Whistler Mountain Mapping Initiative.  (WMMI)

The aim of these maps is to provide a variety of users, be it the general public through to mountain operational staff with a purchasable third party high resolution GPS enabled map app for the mountains. These maps allow the user along with their hand held device to accurately find their position on either mountain within the mapped zone.

The high definition and detail of these maps allows many different user types to gain an intimate location knowledge and be able to plan their travel and destination requirements in real time on the mountains.

Our role with WMMI was one of consulting during the Mapping phase of their all new exceptional quality Whistler Blackcomb trail maps.

How did we become involved?

One of our jobs is working for Whistler Blackcomb as a winch snow cat operator for the Whistler Blackcomb grooming department. This allows us to have an intimate knowledge of both mountains and their operations. These operations alongside the grooming department are blended with patrol, avalanche control, lift operations, snowmaking and all other mountain operational departments. This intimate knowledge allowed us to consult with the WMMI and help add, edit and work on the accuracy and positioning of high level mapping details for the app.


The maps are incredibly detailed and show anything from:

  1. Contour lines with increments of 10metres.

  2. Pin dropping.

  3. Distance measuring.

  4. Zoom in to high resolution graphics.

  5. Run names.

  6. Lift tower numbers.

  7. Run ability designations.

  8. Patrol feature names.

  9. Grooming feature names.

  10. Zone names.

  11. Lift lines and names.

  12. Snowmaking facilities.

  13. Latitude / Longitude.

  14. Helipads.

  15. Boundaries and sign lines.

  16. Restaurants.

  17. Other infrastructure etc etc.

More features

Where To Buy

These maps are available publicly through their website and a free app on the Apple Website for iOS devices or via the Google Play website for Android devices:

Apple iOS App

Android App

How To Use The Maps

I love these maps, they’re exceptionally well produced and easy to use once setup.

Opening the app and the correct map is simple within the app. But it is worth noting that you can view and browse the maps from any location globally, however it is only once you are within the mapping region that the GPS capabilities of the map app come alive. It’s simply a case of travelling around and you will be able to follow your every move and determine your exact location on the map. (You must make sure that location services / GPS is enabled for the app within your device for this to work.)

If I was to have any criticism, it would be the installation process. Now WMMI has laid out some very clear instructions on their website, and in all honestly they are easy to follow.

However, it involves a couple of stages and must be done within wifi as it involves downloading a reasonable sized map file into the app once the map has been purchased online though their quick and easy purchasing system.

Perhaps in the future it will be possible to buy a dedicated WMMI app with the masp already installed within it, sign up for your account with WMMI to purchase access to the map and then, boom, its unlocked within the app.


The maps are created, owned and maintained by a local Whistler Blackcomb ski patroller who wanted to create some better and more detailed maps available to local mountain professionals and the general public.

At the time of writing there are three high definition maps available:

  1. Blackcomb Mountain Winter Ski Map

  2. Whistler Mountain Winter Ski Map

  3. Whistler Mountain Summer Bike Park Map

In development as we publish this article is the all new Spearhead Traverse map which will be available soon.

Visit their website for more information:

Whistler Mountain Mapping Initiative


These are really great maps that service a large user group and are ideal for anyone working on the mountains in any condition, or for the recreational visitor to the mountain who wants a high definition GPS enabled map for a low cost. Excellent stuff.